Connecticut Uniform Prudent Investor Act

§ 45a-541. Connecticut Uniform Prudent Investor Act

Sections 45a-541 to 45a-541l, inclusive, may be cited as the “Connecticut Uniform Prudent Investor Act”.

§ 45a-541a. Prudent investor rule

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, a trustee who invests and manages trust assets owes a duty to the beneficiaries of the trust to comply with the prudent investor rule, as set forth in sections 45a-541 to 45a-541l, inclusive.

(b) The prudent investor rule is a default rule that may be expanded, restricted, eliminated or otherwise altered by provisions of the trust. A trustee is not liable to a beneficiary to the extent that the trustee acted in reasonable reliance on provisions of the trust.

§ 45a-541b. Standard of care. Portfolio strategy. Risk and return objectives

(a) A trustee shall invest and manage trust assets as a prudent investor would, by considering the purposes, terms, distribution requirements and other circumstances of the trust. In satisfying this standard, the trustee shall exercise reasonable care, skill and caution.

(b) A trustee’s investment and management decisions respecting individual assets shall be evaluated not in isolation, but in the context of the trust portfolio as a whole and as a part of an overall investment strategy having risk and return objectives reasonably suited to the trust.

(c) Among circumstances that a trustee shall consider in investing and managing trust assets are such of the following as are relevant to the trust or its beneficiaries: (1) General economic conditions; (2) the possible effect of inflation or deflation; (3) the expected tax consequences of investment decisions, strategies and distributions; (4) the role that each investment or course of action plays within the overall trust portfolio, which may include financial assets, interests in closely held enterprises, tangible and intangible personal property and real property; (5) the expected total return from income and the appreciation of capital; (6) related trusts and other income and resources of the beneficiaries; (7) needs for liquidity, for regularity of income and for preservation or appreciation of capital; (8) an asset’s special relationship or special value, if any, to the purposes of the trust or to one or more of the beneficiaries; (9) the size of the portfolio; and (10) the nature and estimated duration of the trust.

(d) A trustee shall take reasonable steps to verify facts relevant to the investment and management of trust assets.

(e) Subject to the standard of sections 45a-541 to 45a-541l, inclusive, a trustee may invest in any kind of property or type of investment.

(f) A trustee who has special skills or expertise, or is named trustee in reliance upon the trustee’s representation that the trustee has special skills or expertise, has a duty to use those special skills or expertise.

§ 45a-541c. Diversification

A trustee shall diversify the investments of the trust unless the trustee reasonably determines that, because of special circumstances, the purposes of the trust are better served without diversifying.

§ 45a-541d. Duties at inception of trusteeship

Within a reasonable time after accepting a trusteeship or receiving trust assets, a trustee shall review the trust assets and make and implement decisions concerning the retention and disposition of assets, in order to bring the trust portfolio into compliance with the purposes, terms, distribution requirements and other circumstances of the trust, and with the requirements of sections 45a-541 to 45a-541l, inclusive.

§ 45a-541e. Loyalty

A trustee shall invest and manage the trust assets solely in the interest of the beneficiaries.

§ 45a-541f. Impartiality

If a trust has two or more beneficiaries, the trustee shall act impartially in investing and managing the trust assets, taking into account any differing interests of the beneficiaries.

§ 45a-541g. Investment costs

In investing and managing trust assets, a trustee may only incur costs that are appropriate and reasonable in relation to the assets, the purposes of the trust and the skills of the trustee.

§ 45a-541h. Reviewing compliance

The prudent investor rule expresses a standard of conduct, not outcome. Compliance with the prudent investor rule is determined in light of the facts and circumstances existing at the time of a trustee’s decision or action.

§ 45a-541i. Delegation of investment and management functions

(a) A trustee may delegate investment and management functions that a prudent trustee of comparable skills could properly delegate under the circumstances. The trustee shall exercise reasonable care, skill and caution in: (1) Selecting an agent; (2) establishing the scope and terms of the delegation, consistent with the purposes and terms of the trust; and (3) periodically reviewing the agent’s actions in order to monitor the agent’s performance and compliance with the scope and terms of the delegation.

(b) In performing a delegated function, an agent owes a duty to the trustee and to the trust to exercise reasonable care to comply with the scope and terms of the delegation and to exercise the delegated function with reasonable care, skill and caution. An attempted exoneration of the agent from liability for failure to meet such a duty is contrary to public policy and void.

(c) A trustee who complies with the requirements of subsection (a) of this section is not liable to the beneficiaries or to the trust for the decisions or actions of the agent to whom the function was delegated.

(d) By accepting the delegation of a trust function from the trustee of a trust that is subject to the law of this state, an agent submits to the jurisdiction of the courts of this state and can be held liable by the courts of this state for any breach of duty arising out of the delegation agreement or the terms of sections 45a-541 to 45a-541l, inclusive.

§ 45a-541j. Language invoking standards of act

The following terms or comparable language in a trust instrument, unless otherwise limited or modified by the instrument, authorizes any investment or strategy permitted under sections 45a-541 to 45a-541l, inclusive: “Investments permissible by law for investment of trust funds”, “legal investments”, “authorized investments”, “using the judgment and care under the circumstances then prevailing that persons of prudence, discretion, and intelligence exercise in the management of their own affairs, not in regard to speculation but in regard to the permanent disposition of their funds, considering the probable income as well as the probable safety of their capital”, “prudent man rule”, “prudent trustee rule”, “prudent person rule”, and “prudent investor rule”.

§ 45a-541k. Uniformity of application and construction

Sections 45a-541 to 45a-541l, inclusive, shall be applied and construed to effectuate their general purpose to make uniform the law with respect to the subject of said sections among the states enacting them.

§ 45a-541l. Applicability

Section 45a-532 and sections 45a-541 to 45a-541l, inclusive, apply to trusts existing on and created afterOctober 1, 1997. As applied to trusts existing onOctober 1, 1997, section 45a-532 and sections 45a-541 to 45a-541l, inclusive, govern only decisions or actions occurring after that date.

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